New biomarker for heart disease using atomic force microscopy

first_img © 2016 (—Researchers from the University of Lisbon and the North Lisbon Hospital Center (Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte) conducted a pilot study that demonstrated how atomic force microscopy (AFM) could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for chronic heart disease. Their work appears in the recent issue of Nature Nanotechnology. Atomic force microcsopy was used to determine the binding force between fibrinogen and the erythrocyte receptor. Credit: Filomena A. Carvalho and Nuno C. Santos Explore further Heart failure patients with predominant central sleep apnea at higher risk for serious complications More information: Ana Filipa Guedes et al. Atomic force microscopy as a tool to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients, Nature Nanotechnology (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.52AbstractThe availability of biomarkers to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases is limited. High fibrinogen levels have been identified as a relevant cardiovascular risk factor, but the biological mechanisms remain unclear. Increased aggregation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) has been linked to high plasma fibrinogen concentration. Here, we show, using atomic force microscopy, that the interaction between fibrinogen and erythrocytes is modified in chronic heart failure patients. Ischaemic patients showed increased fibrinogen–erythrocyte binding forces compared with non-ischaemic patients. Cell stiffness in both patient groups was also altered. A 12-month follow-up shows that patients with higher fibrinogen–erythrocyte binding forces initially were subsequently hospitalized more frequently. Our results show that atomic force microscopy can be a promising tool to identify patients with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.center_img Citation: New biomarker for heart disease using atomic force microscopy (2016, June 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology The World Health Organization estimates that 17.5 million people die annually due to cardiovascular diseases. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of heart failure and typically comes with a poor prognosis for patients. Ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF) occurs when the heart cannot receive enough blood, often due to arterial blockage or scars from heart attacks. Because CHF is so pervasive, researchers have sought biomarkers to indicate patient risk for re-occurrence, including diagnosis of ischemic versus non-ischemic CHF.Using AFM techniques and building on their prior studies on how fibrinogen, a protein found in blood plasma, binds to the cell membrane of erythrocytes (i.e., red blood cells), Ana Filipa Guedes, Filomena A. Carvalho, Ines Malho, Nuno Lousada, Luis Sargento, and Nuno C. Santos observed molecular changes that occur in patients with ischemic CHF. These changes could be used to assess patient risk as well as provide potential targets for drug discovery. They tested fifteen patients with ischemic CHF, fifteen with non-ischemic CHF, and fifteen healthy patients as the control group.Atomic force microscopy allows for molecular-level studies because its probe tip size is on the order of nanometers in diameter. In this study AFM was used to investigate the binding strength and frequency between fibrinogen and the αvβ3 receptor on the erythrocyte surface as well as erythrocyte elasticity via tip penetration depth.The AFM tip was functionalized with fibrinogen molecules and put in contact with the receptors on the erythrocyte surface. The binding strength was found by force measurements when the tip was pulled away from the receptor sites. Guedes, et al. found that the binding strength and frequency were different in each type of sample. Patients with ischemic CHF showed the strongest binding strength, but the lowest binding frequency. Non-ischemic CHF was next, followed by the control group, which showed the highest binding frequency but the lowest binding strength between fibrinogen and the αvβ3 receptor.Erythrocytes are known to change shape based on their physiological environment. Erythrocytes will change their shape when a high or low shear force, or flow rate, is applied to them. This helps the red blood cells flow smoothly and not become clogged. Additionally, certain diseases can cause changes in the erythrocyte’s shape. An erythrocyte’s ability to change shape is based on how elastic its membrane is.To determine erythrocyte elasticity, Guedes, et al. looked at AFM tip penetration depth. They found that red blood cells from patients with non-ischemic CHF had a higher average stiffness than cells from the ischemic group and the control group. However, red blood cells from patients with ischemic CHF had higher cell penetration depth. Viscosity studies also showed that cells from non-ischemic patients were higher than ischemic patients and the control group. The cell stiffness may be one of the reasons for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events due to blood clots.Finally, the AFM studies were correlated with patient clinical data. After twelve months the patients that had a higher binding force between fibrinogen and the erythrocyte receptor were more likely to be hospitalized for a cardiovascular complication than the other two groups. Statistical studies show a correlation between binding strength and hospitalization within the next twelve months.While this is only a pilot study with a limited number of patients, the authors point out that these results show that AFM is a promising nanotool for looking at the interaction between fibrinogen and erythrocyte binding, which can be used to identify those patients who are at increased risk for a subsequent cardiovascular event. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Environmental noise found to enhance the transport of energy across a line

first_img Citation: Environmental noise found to enhance the transport of energy across a line of ions (2019, February 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Scientists turn to the quantum realm to improve energy transportation More information: Christine Maier et al. Environment-Assisted Quantum Transport in a 10-qubit Network, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.050501arXiv:1809.07680v1 AbstractThe way in which energy is transported through an interacting system governs fundamental properties in many areas of physics, chemistry, and biology. Remarkably, environmental noise can enhance the transport, an effect known as environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT). In this paper, we study ENAQT in a network of coupled spins subject to engineered static disorder and temporally varying dephasing noise. The interacting spin network is realized in a chain of trapped atomic ions and energy transport is represented by the transfer of electronic excitation between ions. With increasing noise strength, we observe a crossover from coherent dynamics and Anderson localization to ENAQT and finally a suppression of transport due to the quantum Zeno effect. We found that in the regime where ENAQT is most effective the transport is mainly diffusive, displaying coherences only at very short times. Further, we show that dephasing characterized by non-Markovian noise can maintain coherences longer than white noise dephasing, with a strong influence of the spectral structure on the transport effciency. Our approach represents a controlled and scalable way to investigate quantum transport in many-body networks under static disorder and dynamic noise. A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Austria and Germany has shown that introducing environmental noise to a line of ions can lead to enhanced transport of energy across them. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the researchers describe their experiments and why they believe their findings will be helpful to other researchers. Explore further Journal information: Physical Review Letterscenter_img Prior research has shown that when electrons move through conductive material, the means by which they do so can be described by quantum mechanics equations. But in the real world, such movement can be hindered by interference due to noise in the environment, leading to suppression of the transport energy. Prior research has also shown that electricity moving through a material can be described as a wave—if such waves remain in step, they are described as being coherent. But such waves can be disturbed by noise or defects in an atomic lattice, leading to suppression of flow. Such suppression at a given location is known as an Anderson localization. In this new effort, the researchers have shown that Anderson localizations can be overcome through the use of environmental noise.The work consisted of isolating 10 calcium ions and holding them in space as a joined line—a one-dimensional crystal. Lasers were used to switch the ions between states, and energy was introduced to the ion line using laser pulses. This setup allowed them to watch as energy moved along the line of ions from one end to the other. Anderson localizations were introduced by firing individual lasers at each of the ions—the energy from the lasers resulted in ions with different intensities. With a degree of disorder in place, the team then created noise by randomly changing the intensity of the beams fired at the individual ions. This resulted in frequency wobble. And it was that wobble that the team found allowed the movement of energy between the ions to overcome the Anderson localizations.The researchers note that there was a limit on the system—too much noise, and energy transport once again slowed due to the quantum Zeno effect. They claim that their system could prove useful to other researchers because it allows for studying quantum effects in an artificially engineered quantum system. © 2019 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domainlast_img read more

Art in the ctrl alt delete world

first_imgArun Pandit’s last show at the Visual Arts Gallery in Delhi was described as a milestone in the evolution of a sculptor who uses personal experience to create sculptures that speak in the rhythm of the human metaphor. Looking at Pandit’s works in this show he recalls the words of Harold Rosenberg – ‘A contemporary painting or sculpture is a species of centaur—half art  materials half words’-  as he creates images that are blurred in the light of the internet frustrations and experiences that happen when we are faced with the kinetic words, what he describes as – Error 404. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Arun explains his experience and his journey, ‘For me the internet experience is a kind of disorientation which is the beginning and end and in that way it’s like  a closed question, that operates  in a basic perceptual textbook in the human psyche, which also tells the  reader, “You see the image one way, and if you turn it in space then it becomes different experientially.” But in my work I also have a peculiar kind of  disorientation that comprises the entirely of the invitation  to the viewer because it  engenders in him or her a level of curiosity like never before.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixPandit’s work is about analysis. He doesn’t want the sculptural pieces to be an act of analysis by themselves. He wants the pieces to be the collective conscious  clump that his art  is analyzing. Whether it be the couple reading the newspaper, or the mirrored bull he  wants all the aspects that he is juxtaposing  to be pushing against each other at once and as a unit. Pandit  says: ‘ I’m not interested in taking things apart, I’m interested in what happens when they stay together, when they are together.’The power of this show lies in its ability to draw the viewer into its maw. Pandit also draws our attention to  the image of art as a tool-because sculpture  is part of the larger question of what that tool of thought  is used for.last_img read more

PM grabs eyeballs with name embossed suit

first_imgThe debate began after close-up photographs of his suit showed that his full name, Narendra Damodardas Modi, was embroidered on the fabric vertically down the stripe. “While ‘Modi Kurta’ might have been interesting, ‘Modi Suit’ feels annoying,” was one of the tweets.  The ‘name suit’ was reported to have been tailored by Jade Blue in Ahmedabad, the clothing chain that handles Modi’s wardrobe since his days as Chief Minister in Gujarat. Incidentally, the clothing chain’s Proprietor Bipin Chauhan designed the now-famous “Modi kurta”. Some on twitter noted that former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak used to wear suits with his name embossed on them. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIModi had his share of defenders too. “That’s his personal choice media morons. Did anyone ask what journalists wear?” said one.Another noted, “Well Mubarak didn’t have media morons to deal with! Poor Modi can’t even wear what he wants to without media doing a commentary.”  The Prime Minister’s sartorial taste has generally invited glowing commentary in India and abroad. The US media was gushing in its praise for his choice of clothes during the UN General Assembly meet.Obama had at the banquet hosted by President Pranab Mukherjee yesterday recalled a headline back home which asked who is the new fashion icon, referring to Modi, other than Michelle Obama and said “I was thinking of wearing a Modi kurta myself.last_img read more

Evolution of ceramic art

first_imgA ceramic jug with a long nose and a crooked mouth, peers fiery eyes at a sobbing little cup by its side, with almost like a raging husband shouting at his poor wife. Much like all forms of art, ceramic art too has undergone transformation as artistes from across regions and cultures have contributed to the art form facilitating its evolution into its present form.Design professional and ceramic artist, Shirley Bhatnagar, captured this evolution in a narrative and in the process shed light on modern ceramic art at a talk on Narrative in Ceramics here recently. Art conventionally has been a medium of telling stories and ceramic art is no exception. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“Miniature paintings and scrolls have always been believed to have narrated stories. Three dimensional art also does the same,” said Bhatnagar as she displayed on the screen examples from Etruscan pottery, dated between 1000 BC and 700 BC.Etruscan pottery, which has its genesis, in modern Italy and Greece, has artworks with animated sequences of Gods painted on the walls of the vessels.“In one of the famous ceramic works from the period, the walls of the pot depict a scene from the life of Dionysus where the god of wine and drama punishes the pirates who try to kidnap him for ransom by turning them into dolphins as they dive into the sea to flee his wrath,” Bhatnagar said. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe dolphin vase or the Kalpis, which can now be found in the Toledo Museum of Art, was made by an artiste known as the Micali painter. Askos pottery, hailing from sixth to fourth century BC Greece, is characterised by its flat shape, spouts and sprigs, that erupt from the vessel’s body.Bhatnagar displayed a Canosan Askos work depicting Medusa flanked by two Tritonesses, as an example of work from the period.Taking a virtual tour across the globe, the artiste gradually moved from the archaic to modern art in ceramic. Turner price awardee Grayson Perry from UK is one of her ‘personal favourites.’ The work of Chilean artiste Livia Maria seems to capture the process of distortion in the present continuous tense with “cups melting into puddles of porcelain pattern.” Richard Shaw from USA is one of Bhatnagar’s contemporaries and is a master of the medium with his technique of Trompe-l’?il or fooling the eye. From books and baskets to a house of cards, although he makes all of these in ceramic they are bound to trick your eyes and make you believe that they are originals.last_img read more

Mamata happy with Bengals repeated success in 100 days work scheme

first_imgKolkata: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee expressed happiness on Saturday on the state emerging as number one in the country for Convergence and Livelihood Augmentation under the 100-days work scheme. In a Facebook post she said, “I am very happy to share with all of you that Bengal has again emerged No 1 in the country for Convergence and Livelihood Augmentation under 100-days work scheme, as announced by the Govt of India.” “This is three times in a row that we have bagged this prestigious distinction,” an elated Banerjee said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life East Burdwan and Coochbehar districts in the state are among the top ones in the country for effective implementation of the scheme. Upper Bagdogra gram panchayat (GP) of Naxalbari Block near Siliguri has been ranked among the best performing GPs in the country for 100 days work, she said. Bengal has emerged second in the country in water conservation, the award for which was announced for the first time, the chief minister added.last_img read more

Paribartan is inevitable and not a bad thing Sharbari Datta

first_imgIt was a bleak and boring world of stripes and checks that Sharbari Datta  gate- crashed into in 1991 with her first show of luxurious, ethnic menswear. In a world where the silk tie was perhaps the only fashion statement for urban men, Sharbari -with her coloured dhoti and well cut and embellished men’s kurtas, angarakhas, sherwanis- made a huge fashion statement that changed Indian menswear forever.   Older men initially felt inhibited but the younger ones, mindful of the mirror, took to Sharbari with the zeal of a convert. They were followed by the older generation; who were slow to shed conventions. In 1998, she was awarded by Vijay Mallya of the UB Group for significant contribution to Indian clothing design. In 1999, she was awarded with the “Bharat Nirman” for the best person in the field of fashion in Kolkata. An exhibition and fashion show at Sheraton Hotel, Dhaka, Bangladesh saw an overwhelming reaction both from the press and public.  Also Read – Add new books to your shelfTwenty five years down the line, Sharbari has dressed celebrities like Sachin Tendulkar, Rahul Dravid, Kapil Dev, Leander Paes, Sunil Gavaskar, Sourav Ganguly, late Jagjit Singh, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan, late RD Burman, Vijay Mallya, Sanjeev.  Artists like MF Husain, Ganesh Pyne, Manjeet Bawa and Paresh Maity have bought from her and her client list includes some of India’s most powerful women like Mamata Banerjee, Shubha Mudgal, Shobha De, Ila Arun and Aparna Sen. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveSharbari’s quick popularity indicated that Indians, both men and women, were fond of dressing up. The elaborate styles of a bygone era of leisure and pleasure were coming back with a vengeance in her clothes. Cave and folk art, Egyptian mural, calligraphy of West and East Asia, Pop art and Picasso, miniatures, Hindu Mythology were sources of inspiration for her leading many to describe her garments as ‘artwear’. Then, in 2001, Sharbari ventured into the realm of male accessory design and in a show sponsored by World Gold Council, she showcased her range of exquisite gold jewellery for men, breaking all pre-defined notions about masculinity. Sharbari, the designer for men, never looked back.  What was your childhood like?My father, late Ajit Datta, belonged to a zamindar family near Dhaka, Bangladesh. He was an outstanding scholar, a literary person, a well known professor, and above all, a famous poet in the post-Tagorean era. I grew up in a truly intellectual cauldron. I completed my formal education from Presidency College with MA in Philosophy.My childhood and my formal education exposed me to the world of literature, arts, philosophy, music and mysticism. I was attracted to the cultural side of Indian tradition. My love for tradition and aspiration to serve the cause of our pre-existing culture, gave birth to the idea of designing Indian traditional attire for men. Tell us about your first break…My first exhibition was in 1991 at the Conclave Gallery in Kolkata. The exhibition was informal and without any commercial aspiration. The exhibition was successful in the sense that all the pieces were sold out. I got some confidence and did my second exhibition the next year. The press was invited for the same, garnering public recognition for me. You have dressed many a celebrity. Who are your best male clients?My client list would include, Sachin Tendulkar, Rahul Dravid, Kapil Dev, Leander Paes, Sunil Gavaskar, Sourav Ganguly, Jagjit Singh, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan, RD Burman, Mamata Banerjee, Shubha Mudgal, Shobha De, Ila Arun, Aparna Sen, Vijay Mallya, Sanjeev Goenka, amongst others. However MF Husain buying from me is a memory I have personally come to cherish over the years along with Ganesh Pyne, Manjeet Bawa, Paresh Maity.Any celebrities who surprised you by visiting your studio?Yes. My jaw dropped when the iconic film director Ismail Merchant dropped by one day to our studio. This was sometime in the 90s. He was visiting Kolkata on the occasion of the annual Kolkata film festival.  He sat in the studio, had chai and sandesh. He ordered a kurta and churidar from my collection. I still can’t get over his visit. Another prized guest was Aishwarya Rai’s mother, Brinda Rai. She was visiting Kolkata when her daughter was shooting for Rituparno Ghose’s film, Chokher Bali. I kept asking her who had recommended me but she said that she had read about me. “Don’t underestimate yourself”, she said.  I think she bought a few men’s kurtas as gifts. Aishwarya and Abhishek married four years after that visit. Rai ordered clothes for the bridegroom’s family from me. On another occasion I believe, a big steel tycoon from India purchased a kurta pyjama from me for the former US Vice President,  Al Gore. Also, someone told me that a stole made by me displaying a motif from the Old Testament was displayed at the Vatican in Rome. A Cardinal who was visiting the St Xavier’s, Kolkata had carried it back to Rome. What challenges did you face while becoming Sharbari the brand?Regarding challenges, I must mention that I really didn’t face any. I was fortunate enough to taste success from the very beginning. I never retailed and sold my menswear privately, from my residence-cum-studio. I never advertised. Have you designed for women? I design women’s clothing on request – but my true and serious collection is always for men. I design exclusively for men, and to my knowledge, remain the only one. What are your other interests? How do you relax?My other interests include cooking, gardening, reading, art and music. I’m a voracious reader, I visit art galleries and I have also grown my own garden. Who are your fashion icons?My fashion icons would include MS Subbalakshmi, Rekha and Hrithik Roshan.Why did you choose to live and work in Kolkata?I was born and brought up in Kolkata. I have never even entertained the thought of moving to another city. I also like London but not as much as I adore Kolkata. Actually we grew up in the heart of South Kolkata and studied in Presidency College which is a distinguished institution of the city. I’m most comfortable in this city and my family has struck roots here. Would you ever ask Uttam Kumar and Suchitra Sen why they wanted to live in Kolkata?Do you think the city has changed? If so then how much?Yes, it has. But paribartan is inevitable and not a bad thing. You cannot expect the Gariahat crossing to be what it was like 30 years ago. The older generation doesn’t like change but it is best to adjust yourself and take it easy. I can keep day dreaming about the old  neighbourhood we grew in or the pipul tree that raised its head in the garden. But the landscape and the skyscape has changed. Kolkata is now a city of highrises and flyovers. Life is lived in the fast lane and we shop no longer in local markets but in malls. My grandchildren think differently and I no longer have the energy of a 25 year old. How has the Trinamool Congress led State Government performed? Mamata Banerjee is serving her second term in office…I used to admire Mamata Banerjee from the beginning, even before she became the Chief Minister of West Bengal. But after she came to power I sometimes harboured doubts about the people surrounding her. But her struggle and effort to do good for Bengal is above question. She has also created a designer’s hub as part of ‘Vishwa Bangla’ and I have been given a stall there. Mamata also buys my kurtas as gifts for state guests who come for the Kolkata International film festival every year. I believe my kurtas have been gifted to stars like Amitabh Bachchan, Irfaan Khan, Prosenjit and Biswajit.Who are the best Indian models? Also, who are your favourite designers?I like Ritu Kumar’s designs and I even bought outfits from her at one point of time. When movie star John Abraham used to walk the ramp, I loved his looks and he has showcased my clothes with great aplomb. Top male models like Milind Soman, Zulfikar Syed and Shayan Munshi have also walked for me. They are all excellent in their work. You do have a factory, don’t you? You don’t retail at all?My daughter-in-law Kanaklata and son Amalin manage finances and look after day to day operations of the business. My factory is small but it is about 25 years old. I design all my clothes. I have never retailed and by God’s grace, my clothes are booked five months in advance. My label is sold in private, it is exclusive and I meet my clients by appointment only. You cannot get a copy of a Sharbari Dutta outfit or buy the same garment twice.last_img read more

Dont believe in violence to accept views of others is our tradition

first_imgKolkata: Abhishek Banerjee, Trinamool Congress MP from Diamond Harbour, inaugurated a gate at the entrance of Boro Kachari temple in South 24-Parganas on Wednesday afternoon.The gate has been constructed with the financial assistance of the state Tourism department. Banerjee said a comprehensive plan worth Rs 56 lakh will be taken to beautify areas surrounding the temple. The expenditure will be borne by the Tourism department. He added: “I practice the rituals of Hinduism privately and I believe that when it comes to work, my religion is humanism.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedHe also said that Hinduism teaches people to be tolerant and accept views of others. “We do not believe in violence. We accept and respect the views of others and this is our tradition and heritage.” Boro Kachari temple is coming up as a major tourism hub. Thousands of devotees visit the temple on Tuesdays and Saturdays to offer prayers. Gajon festival and Neel Utsav are observed every year in the month of April. The decorative gate was completed in 10 months. It is said that thousands of farmers took shelter near the temple when the Marathas planned an attack on Kolkata. There is a general belief that Baba Boro Kachari protects the villagers from evil. Many devotees from nearby districts come to offer prayers at the temple. In addition to the construction of the gate, the approach road to the temple has also been repaired.last_img read more